Cherokee Registry

Treaties

Cherokee Protest of the New Echota Treaty (1836) The Cherokee who did not support the New Echota Treaty, which stripped the tribe of their land and rights and eventually led to the Trail of Tears, sent this petition to the Senate in 1836. The language and eloquence of the petition suggests that the Cherokee had adapted American ways and embraced American education.

The Cherokee have participated in over forty treaties in the past three hundred years.


Pre-American Revolution


Treaty with South Carolina, 1721
Ceded land between the Santee, Saluda, and Edisto Rivers to the Province of South Carolina.


Treaty of Nikwasi, 1730
Trade agreement with the Province of North Carolina thru Alexander Cumming.


Articles of Trade and Friendship, 1730
Established rules for trade between the Cherokee and the English colonies. Signed between seven Cherokee
chiefs (including Attakullakulla) and George I of England.


Treaty with South Carolina, 1755
Ceded land between the Wateree and Santee Rivers to the Province of South Carolina.


Treaty of Long-Island-on-the-Holston, 1761
Ended the Anglo-Cherokee War with the Colony of Virginia.


Treaty of Charlestown, 1762
Ended the Anglo-Cherokee War with the Province of South Carolina.


Treaty of Johnson Hall, 1768
Guaranteed peace between the Iroquois and the Cherokee.


Treaty of Hard Labour, 1768
Ceded land in southwestern Virginia to the British Indian Superintendent, John Stuart.


Treaty of Lochaber, 1770
Ceded land in the later states of Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky to the Colony of Virginia.


Treaty of Augusta, 1773
Ceded Cherokee claim to 2000000 acres to the Colony of Georgia.


Treaty with Virginia, 1772
Ceded land in Virginia and eastern Kentucky to the Colony of Virginia.


Treaty of Sycamore Shoals, 1775
Ceded claims to the hunting grounds between the Ohio and Cumberland Rivers to the Transylvania Land Company.

 

Pre-U.S. Constitution

Treaty of DeWitts’ Corner, 1777
Ceded the lands of the Cherokee Lower Towns to the States of South Carolina and Georgia.


Treaty of Fort Henry, 1777
Confirmed the cession of the lands to the Watauga Association with the States of Virginia and North Carolina.


Treaty of Long Swamp Creek, 1783
Confirmed the northern boundary of the State of Georgia with the Cherokee, between the latter and that state, with the Cherokee ceding large amounts of land between the Savannah and Chattachooche Rivers to the State of Georgia in the Treaty of Long Swamp Creek.


Treaty of Hopewell, 1785
Changed the boundaries between the U.S. and Cherokee lands.


Treaty of Dumplin Creek, 1785
Ceded remaining land within the claimed boundaries of Sevier County to the State of Franklin.


Treaty of Coyatee, 1785
Made with the State of Franklin at gunpoint, this treaty ceded the remaining land north of the Little Tennessee River.

 

Post-U.S. Constitution


Treaty of Holston, 1791
Established boundaries between the United States and the Cherokee Tribe. Guaranteed by the United States that the lands of the Cherokee have not been ceded to the United States.


Treaty of Pensacola, 1792
Between the Chickamauga (or Lower Cherokee) under John Watts and Arturo O'Neill, governor of Spanish West Florida, for arms and supplies with which to wage war against the United States.


Treaty of Philadelphia, 1794
Reaffirmed the provisions of the 1785 Treaty of Hopewell and the 1791 Treaty of Holston, particularly those regarding land cession.


Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse, 1794
Peace treaty with of the United States with the Lower Cherokee ending the Chickamauga wars.


Treaty of Tellico, 1798
The boundaries promised in the previous treaty had not been marked and white settlers had come in. Because of this, the Cherokee were told they would need to cede new lands as an "acknowledgment" of the protection of the United States. The U.S. would guarantee the new Cherokee Nation could keep the remainder of its land "forever".


Treaty of Tellico, 1804
Ceded land.


Treaty of Tellico, October 25, 1805
Ceded land, including that for the Federal Road through the Cherokee Nation.


Treaty of Tellico, October 27, 1805
Ceded land for the state assembly of Tennessee, whose capital was then in East Tennessee, to meet upon.


Treaty of Washington, 1806
Ceded land.


Treaty of Fort Jackson, 1814
Ended the Creek War, demanded land from both the Muscogee (Creek) and the Cherokee.


Treaties of Washington, March 22, 1816 (1) (2)
Ceded last remaining lands within the territory limits claimed by South Carolina to the state.


Treaty of Chickasaw Council House, September 14, 1816
Ceding land.


Treaty of the Cherokee Agency, 1817
Acknowledged the division between the Upper Towns, which opposed emigration, and the Lower Towns, which favored emigration, and provided benefits for those who chose to emigrate west and 640-acre reservations for those who did not, with the possibility of citizenship of the state they are in.


Treaty of Washington, 1819
Reaffirmed the Treaty of the Cherokee Agency of 1817, with a few added provisions specifying land reserves for certain Cherokee.


Treaty of San Antonio de Bexar, with the Spanish Empire, 1822
Granted land in the province of Tejas in Spanish Mexico upon which the Cherokee band of The Bowl could live. Though signed by the Spanish governor of Tejas, the treaty was never ratified, neither by the Viceroyalty of New Spain nor by the succeeding Mexican Empire or Republic of Mexico.


Treaty of Washington, 1828
Cherokee Nation West ceded its lands in Arkansas Territory for lands in what becomes Indian Territory.


Treaty of New Echota, 1835
Surrendered to the United States the lands of the Cherokee Nation East in return for $5,000,000 dollars to be disbursed on a per capita basis, an additional $500,000 dollars is for educational funds, title in perpetuity to an equal amount of land in Indian Territory to that given up, and full compensation for all property left in the East. The treaty is rejected by the Cherokee National Council but approved by the U.S. Senate.

 

Treaty of Bowles Village with the Republic of Texas, 1836
Granted nearly 1000000 acres of east Texas land to the Texas Cherokees and twelve associated tribes. (Violation of this treaty led to the Cherokee war of 1839 in which most Cherokees were driven north into the Choctaw Nation or who fled south into Mexico. Following this bloody episode, remaining Texas Cherokees under Chicken Trotter joined Mexican forces in a guerilla war that culminated with the invasion of San Antonio by Mexican General Adrian Woll. Cherokee and allied Indians saw action at the Battle of Salado Creek and against the Dawson regiment. Following this conflict, it was apparent that Mexico was not going to be able to provide the remaining Texas Cherokees with any stability or lands in Texas. This led to a push for peace by newly re-installed Texas President Sam Houston to push for a peace treaty in 1843).


Treaty of Bird’s Fort with the Republic of Texas, 1843
Ended hostilities among several Texas tribes, including the Cherokees. The Treaty which was ratified by the Congress of the Republic of Texas, recognized the tribal status of the Texas Indians as distinct, including the Cherokees that would later become known as the Texas Cherokees and Associate Bands-Mount Tabor Indian Community. President of Texas Sam Houston, adopted son of former Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation West John Jolly, signed for the republic. This treaty, honored by the State of Texas following annexation, has
never been aboragated by the Congress of the United States and in theory is still valid.

 

Treaties with the Republic of Texas, 1844
Additional treaties were made in which Chicken Trotter and Wagon Bowles were involved, but these were never ratified.


Treaty of Washington, 1846
Ended the covert war between the various factions that had been ongoing since 1839 and attempted to unite the Old Settlers, the Treaty Party, and the Latecomers (or National Party).


Treaty of Fort Smith, Arkansas, 1865
Recognized the claims of the John Ross party as the legitimate Cherokee Nation vis-a-vis those of the Stand Watie party as well as recognized a temporary cease-fire between the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Comanche, Creek, Osage, Quapaw, Seminole, Seneca, Shawnee, Wichita, and Wyandot, with the United States.


Treaty of the Cherokee Nation, 1866
Annulled "pretended treaty" with Confederate Cherokees; granted amnesty to Cherokees; established a US district court in Indian Territory; prevented the US from trading in the Cherokee Nation unless approved by the Cherokee council or taxing residents of the Cherokee Nation; established that all Cherokee Freedmen and free African-Americans living in the Cherokee Nation "shall have all the rights of native Cherokees"; established right of way for rivers, railroads, and other transportation their Cherokee lands; allowed for the US to settle other Indian people in the Cherokee Nation; prevented members of the US military from selling alcohol to Cherokees for non-medicinal purposes; ceded Cherokee lands in Kansas; and established boundaries and settlements for various individuals.

Treaty of Washington, 1868
Supplemented the treaty of 1866 and also ceded the Cherokee Outlet in Indian Territory.